Quantum Theory

The spectacular development of Quantum physics began in the early 20th century, under the leadership of two famous scientists.

One was Max Planck (1858-1947) and the other Albert Einstein (1879-1955).

Planck was the first scientist to pave the way for the Quantum theory with the work he conducted on energy, radiation and the law of entropy.

Einstein on the other hand, developed the theory of “special relativity” in 1905, five years after Planck and the theory of “general relativity” in 1915.

Einstein, who analyzed the movements of speeds close to the speed of light in the theory of special relativity and the general gravitation and the curve of space in the theory of general relativity, was described as the 20th century’s most important theoretical physicist.

Einstein’s mathematical equations demonstrated that the universe is continuously expanding.

However, up to when Edwin Hubble proved in the 1920s that the galaxies in the universe were continuously drawing away from each other, other scientists believed the universe to be static.

That is why Einstein mathematically stopped the universe’s expansion by introducing the “cosmological constant” into equations explaining the theory of general relativity.

This, as he himself admitted, was a great mistake.

After having seen Hubble’s photographs of the universe he corrected his gaffe and the Big Bang Theory acquired a new dimension because of the evidence that the universe came into being billions of years ago.

Another important question consisted of what had triggered the Big Bang.

Upon the publication of the “Space-Time” theorem in 1960, cosmologists like Stephen Hawking, Roger Penrose and George Ellis began to conduct intensive studies in this field.

According to this theorem, based on Einstein’s general relativity, the origin of matter, energy, space and time is a “singularity.”

The problem that needed to be solved was related to the existence of “black holes,” the initial compression of the universe in a “singularity” and its creation as a result of an explosion of infinite energy.

Scientists have not yet been able to provide an explanation to this problem that would be universally acceptable.

Even if we accept that the “Big Bang” occurred as a result of a phenomenon of “singularity,” this acceptance does not provide an answer regarding the beginning of time or how the infinite energy from which the Big Bang originated came into being.

Moreover, this theory is also in conflict with the thesis that laws of physics and the creation of the world came into being practically as a tailor-made dress.

That is why, in contrast to most leading atheist cosmologists, quantum physicists are generally observed to have turned toward God as the architect of the Big Bang. Roger Penrose, although a cosmologist, constitutes an important example to such a situation.

The following explanation by Roger Penrose, referring to the Law of Entropy, which sets forth the order of the universe, which points to a significant example of turning towards God:

            “High entropy states are natural spaces.

            But the universe’s state of low entropy expresses an order and requires an explanation.

The galaxies, planets and living beings in the universe exist thanks to the low entropy level of the beginning of the universe. The only explanation for this perfect situation, which is impossible because of probabilities, is that God in some way designed it.”

If Richard Dawkins, the militant atheist and passionate advocate of Darwinism, were aware of the studies conducted by Roger Penrose, he would probably not continue referring to Darwin’s rubbish about the manifestation of coincidences. Because if it hadn’t been for Penrose’s law of entropy, there wouldn’t have been any living beings in the universe.

 

The distribution of air molecules in continuous movement, or morphic areas, thanks to the law of probabilistic entropy, is the prerequisite for the sustainably of all living beings.

This statement by Penrose in itself consolidated the views of the advocates of intelligent design and must have made Dawkins recant on his words.

 

Although the Law of Entropy is generally recognized as an indication that the universe is not infinite, the British cosmologist John Barrow said: “the fact that the beginning of the universe was very ordered leads us to believe that it was an extremely special situation and that it was therefore dues to a supreme symmetry.”

Moreover, as stated before, the view expressed by Prof. Eric Julio, who lead the study conducted by NASA in 2010, that “We are thus able to say for the first time that the universe is ever expanding and it will expand forever,” is an important counter argument to the law of entropy’s definition that the universe is not infinite.

 

Brian Green is a professor of theoretical physics at Columbia University in the US. He is known as one of the best string theorists in the world. Green’s second book, The Fabric of Cosmos, contains the string theory’s fundamental explanations.

Green states that in the sky there may be radiation that is visible from everywhere and that luminance that has grown cold and is partly extinguished and that is seen as traces of the Big Bang, are evidence of strings. Joel Achenbach, who writes for the Washington Post, says: “At the very least string theory is a great intellectual achievement. If someone told you to create a universe from scratch, these strings would come in mighty handy.”

The string theory is a theory that examines the way the universe functions as a whole.

The universe consists of strings and strings are the smallest particles of everything.

They are the smallest parts of subatomic particles and they resemble supermicroscopic fibrils or strings.

They are practically like the fibers of spaghetti.

These strings, which vibrate continuously, in different dimensions, produce many particles that can be observed in laboratory conditions.

Therefore, while a string appears as an “electron” in one dimension, it will emerge as a “quark” when it vibrates in another dimension.

 

When the same string vibrates in a third and different way, it may present the characteristics of a “photon,” and in a fourth type of vibration it may appear as a “graviton,” believed to have a force of gravity.

Because of these internal forces, strings are practically information stores that carry and transmit the information of the quantum universe.

If the string theory can one day be proven in the sense of absolute knowledge, it will also be proven that strings actually are the transmitters of the universe’s DNA.

Every string that vibrates with a different frequency forms a new substance.

In other words, strings form quarks, quarks form neutrons and protons and the latter form the atoms.

While quantum mechanics examines atoms and subatomic particles, Einstein’s theory of relativity explains the movement of celestial bodies.

The string theory, on the other hand, is a mathematical theory that attempts to combine these two phenomena. It is believed that the “M” or “membrane concept,” which asserts that for the string theory to be valid, the universe needs to be of 11, rather than 4 dimensions, will be able to explain everything in the universe.

According to this view, the universe consists of a membrane.

And the whole of the universe is interconnected via a single structure.

However, the string theory is not yet universally accepted.

 

Stephen Hawking, who conducts studies on Einstein’s theory of general relativity, which covers space and time and on the force of gravity and the curve of the space, states that the black holes that began with the Big Bang have ended from a mathematical perspective.

Eintein’s assumption that the universe is not expanding has been proven wrong through studies conducted on the Quantum theory and the language of mathematics.

According to the theory of “general relativity” that Einstein put forth in 1915 and that explains the force of gravity, the force that attracts objects to each other is space-time, which has become curved because of its mass.

Hawking’s studies too pointed to the fact that the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics needed to be combined.

According to the Quantum theory, light is emitted and transmitted via particles called photons.

But it was not possible to establish the presence of these particles through experiments.

That is why studies to combine Einstein’s concept of the force of gravity with the Quantum theory are still undergoing.

The most popular of these studies can be listed as the theory of super gravity, the string theory, the super string theory and the M theory, which applies the super string theory to 11 dimensions.

 

Stephen Hawking, who is defined as the world’s most important theoretic physicist since Einstein, is a materialist and atheist scientist.

According to Hawking, a universe with no ending and no limits does not mean that it has been “created out of nothing.”

In his book entitled A Brief History of Time, Hawking, who does not accept the concept of “timelessness” before the Big Bang, asserts that the concept of the Big Bang was put forth because it implied “a Divine Creator of the universe.”

Staying that his work entitled Theory of Everything is not yet complete, but that when it will, it will explain the universe with a single formula, Hawking says that this may happen towards the end of the 21st century.

Hawking asserts that following the Big Bang, together with the time dimension and the space dimensions of length, width and height, the universe achieved  four cosmic dimensions, but that in reality it consists of 11 dimensions.

He states that these 11 dimensions exist all over the universe in the form of a ball that covers the space of a string.

According to Hawking’s theory, if the Earth is a hologram, this means that all information, that is to say the information of the whole of the Divine system and of all living beings exists all over the universe.

The fact that must not be ignored among all these scientific studies is whether mathematical equations based on some assumptions are correct or not. The language of mathematics can contain both truths and errors.

In short, even if a conclusion reached mathematically regarding an abstract concept is theoretically correct, this does not necessarily mean that this is a universally accepted scientific truth.

As a result, efforts to combine the theory of the force of gravity with the Quantum theory will probably not produce a result for many more years.